The geography of Scotland
Scotland forms the northern half of Great Britain. Rugged uplands separate it from England to the south. Within this border territory north of England the Scots fought many battles to keep their independence. In 1707 Scotland joined with England, and the entire island became a single kingdom, Great Britain. The Scots, however, remain a distinct and proud people, and they have a long history different from that of England.
Scotland has long been characterised as a land of romance. It contains ruins of many ancient castles and abbeys, and there is a haunting beauty in its windswept mountains, long deep valleys, and ribbon lakes. It attracts many tourists, particularly from the United States, Europe and England.
The coast of Scotland is deeply pierced by inlets from the sea. The larger inlets are called firths. Long, narrow inlets are called sea lochs. On the rugged west coast the sea lochs are framed by great cliffs and resemble the fjords of Norway.
The land may be divided into three regions: the Highlands in the north, the Central Lowlands and the Southern Uplands.