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About the foundation of the city
Human presence on the territory of modern St. Petersburg can be traced back to the last melting of the glacier that covered this territory.
About 12 thousand years ago, the ice retreated, and people followed it. Information about the Slavs (Ilmen Slovenes and Krivichi) is known
from the VIII—IX centuries .
They were engaged in slash-and-burn agriculture, cattle breeding, hunting and fishing, and made armed raids on other
peoples. At the beginning of the IX century, these lands became part of the old Russian state, forming part of the territory of Veliky Novgorod called
Vodskaya Pyatina, the area on the right along the Neva river was called Karelian land, on the left-Izhora land. In the VIII—XIII centuries there was
a waterway "from the Varangians to the Greeks" from Scandinavia through Eastern Europe to Byzantium. During this period, the Novgorod Republic
constantly waged war with the Swedes.
Photo of the late XIX century
The prospect of the Admiralty
On July 15, 1240, at the confluence of the Izhora river with the Neva river, a battle took place between the
Novgorod militia under the command of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich and the Swedish army. In 1300, the Swedes at the confluence of the Ohta river in
the Neva river was built fortress Landskrona, but a year later it was taken by a combined team of Novgorod and local Karelians and razed to the
On the site of the former fortress for a long time there was a Novgorod torzhishche "Neva mouth", that is, the market. In the XV century,
the Izhora land as part of the Novgorod Republic was annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. As a result of defeat in the war with Sweden by Stolbovsky
peace 1617 the territory on the Neva river became part of Swedish Ingria, commercial and administrative centre which was the city Nien around the
fortress Nyenskans, built in 1611 on the site of Landskrona.
As a result of the Northern war of 1700-1721, the Neva river valley was recaptured from Sweden and became part of the Russian Empire under
the Nishtadt peace Treaty of August 30 (September 10), 1721. On may 16 (27), 1703, the city of Saint Petersburg was founded at the mouth
of the Neva river, not far from Nien. This day dates from the laying of the Peter and Paul fortress by Tsar Peter I, the first building
of the city, on hare island. It was supposed to block the fairways of the two largest branches of the river Delta: the Neva and the
Bolshaya Nevka. In 1704, the fortress of Kronstadt was founded on the island of the Gulf of Finland Kotlin to protect the sea borders of
Russia. Peter I attached great strategic importance to the new city in providing a waterway from Russia to Western Europe.
In the first quarter of the XVIII century, the name was written as San (K)t-Peter-burh. When the city appeared, no special act defining
the name of the city was adopted, but the letters of Peter I and the official newspaper Vedomosti almost always mention the name "San (K)
t-Peter-burh" in accordance with the Dutch version (Netherlands)( Sankt Pieter Burch — "City Of St. Peter"). The spelling "Saint Petersburg"
was first recorded in the newspaper "Vedomosti" in July 1724.
In the first ten years of existence, the main part was the City island (modern Petrograd island), there were Gostiny Dvor,
Trinity Church, many office buildings, craft settlements and military units. The first industrial enterprise was the Admiralty
shipyard, opened in 1705 on the Admiralty side (the left Bank of the Neva), where later were built galley yard, Winter and Summer palaces
of Peter I with a Summer garden.
Mouth Of The Neva
before the foundation of Saint Petersburg
In 1712, St. Petersburg was proclaimed the capital of Russia, and since 1713, all persons serving the Royal
court had to settle in it. The government Senate moved here. By the decree of Peter the Great of January 16, 1712, engineering and artillery
schools were established in the city. In 1712, he issued a decree on the creation of the General plan of St. Petersburg. It was from this
time that Vasilievsky island, which was to become the center of the city, and the Vyborg side began to be actively built, and the construction
of suburban palaces of Peterhof, Yekaterinburg, Oranienbaum was launched. In 1719, the St. Petersburg Admiralty hospital was opened.
By 1725, Smolny yard, Foundry yard, water saw mills, brick, wax, gunpowder, weapons, trellis, leather and other factories, food enterprises
were built. In 1724, the Mint was transferred from Moscow. In 1725, the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences was founded, where the first
Russian newspaper "St. Petersburg Vedomosti" was published in 1728.